POLITICAL ELITES AND A POLITY IN THE MAKING: THE CASE OF EU
This paper is devoted to an exploration of some aspects of this relationship through an analysis of the process of European integration. By analyzing the institutional transformation brought about by the Lisbon treaty, the attitudes of national elites toward the European form of government, and the impact of the recent crisis on the European institutions, the article tries to establish the role of elites in the development of a supranational polity, and to ascertain what influence institutional transformations have had on the formation of a genuinely European elite.
Об автореM. Cotta
Prof., Ph.D., Director, Centre for the Study of Political Change (CIRCaP)
1. Данная статья была впервые опубликована в журнале Historical Social Research (Historische Sozialforschung) в 2012 г., в № 3 (37).
2. Elites and democratic consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe / ed. by J. Higley, R. Gunther. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1992 ; Elites After State Socialism / ed. by J. Higley, G. Lengyel. Lanham : Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2000 ; Elites Crises and the Origins of Regimes / ed. by M.Dogan, J. Higley. Lanham : Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 1998 ; Higley J. Elite Foundations of Liberal Democracy / J. Higley, M. Burton. Lanham : Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2006.
3. Linz J. State Building and Nation Building // European Review. 1993. № 1. P. 355–69.
4. Rokkan S. Citizens, Elections, Parties. Oslo : Universitetsforlaget, 1970 ; The Formation of National States in Western Europe / ed. by Ch. Tilly. Princeton : Princeton University Press, 1975.
5. Higley J., Barton M. Elite Foundations of Liberal Democracy. Lanham : Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2006.
6. Rokkan S. Citizens, Elections, Parties. Oslo : Universitetsforlaget, 1970 ; The Formation of National States in Western Europe / ed. by Ch. Tilly. Princeton : Princeton University Press, 1975.
7. Cotta M., Isernia P. Citizenship in the European Polity: Questions and Explorations // Institutional Challenges in Post-Constitutional Europe. Governing Change / ed. by C. Moury, L. de Sousa. Routledge. London, 2009. P. 71–94.
8. Haller M. European Integration as an Elite Process. Milton Park : Routledge, 2008.
9. Hooghe L., Marks G. Multi-level Governance and European Integration. Lanham : Rowman and Littlefield, 2001.
10. Moravcsik A. The Choice for Europe. Ithaca : Cornell University Press, 1998.
11. Milward A.S. The European Rescue of the Nation State. L. : Routledge, 1992.
12. Pierson P. The Path to European Integration // Comparative Political Studies. 1996. Vol.29. P. 123–63.
13. Verzichelli L., Edinger M. A Critical Juncture? The 2004 European Elections and the Making of a Supranational Elite // Journal of Legislative Studies. 2005. Vol. 11. P. 254–74.
14. Hix S., Noury A., Roland G. Democratic Politics in the European Parliament. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2007.
15. This research was funded by a grant from the InTune project (Integrated and United: A quest for Citizenship in an ever closer Europe) financed by the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Union, Priority 7, Citizens and Governance in a Knowledge Based Society (CIT3-CT-2005-513421). I want to thank Federico Russo of the University of Siena for his assistance with the data.
16. Hooghe L., Marks G. Op. cit.
17. Fabbrini S. Compound Democracy. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2007.
18. Cotta M. A «Compound» Model of Citizenship? European Citizenship in the Eyes of National Elites. Paper presented at the IntUne General Assembly, November 27–30, 2008 in Lisbon, Portugal.
19. The votes of each country are determined by its population weight so that the “Union” principle applies — but the count favours the smaller countries, thus attenuating the “Union” principle with some elements of the “nation” principle.
20. That is 55% of Member States, currently 15 out of 27, representing at least 65% of the population.
21. Cotta M., Russo F. Europe a la carte? European Citizenship and its Dimensions from the Perspective of National Elites // The Europe of Elites: A Study into the Europeanness of Europe's Economic and Political Elites / ed. by H. Best, G. Lengyel, L. Verzichelli. Oxford : Oxford University Press [forthcoming] ; The Europe of Elites: A Study into the Europeanness of Europe's Economic and Political Elites / ed. by H. Best, G. Lengyel, L. Verzichelli. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2012 [forthcoming].
22. The countries covered in the 2007 survey were Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, United Kingdom (to these should be added a non member state, Serbia, which is not analyzed here). In the 2009 survey Estonia is missing.
23. Cotta M., Russo F. Op. cit.
24. Cotta M., Russo F. Op. cit.
25. The decision was taken in September 2010 by the Council of Financial ministers (ECOFIN) in agreement with the European Parliament.
26. Eurobonds, i.e. securities issued by a European authority, are not a new topic as they had been proposed already in the past, notably by Jacques Delors. The discussion about them has become with the crisis less academic and more intense.
27. In practice, this meant bending the treaty rule that explicitly excluded a community bail out.
28. According to a decision of the European Council of July 2011.
29. A good example was the sudden decision of the Italian government in August 2011 to change its budgetary framework, which had been introduced just a month before, and to advance the balancing of the budget by one year to 2013. This extraordinary step was explicitly requested by a letter of the ECB to the Italian government as a precondition for the decision of the Central Bank to buy on a large scale on the secondary market Italian treasury bonds and thus contribute to pushing down their interest rates.
Для цитирования: Cotta M. POLITICAL ELITES AND A POLITY IN THE MAKING: THE CASE OF EU. Сравнительная политика. 2012;3(3(9)):46-65. https://doi.org/10.18611/2221-3279-2012-3-3(9)-46-65
For citation: Cotta M. POLITICAL ELITES AND A POLITY IN THE MAKING: THE CASE OF EU. Comparative Politics Russia. 2012;3(3(9)):46-65. https://doi.org/10.18611/2221-3279-2012-3-3(9)-46-65
- Обратные ссылки не определены.
Контент доступен под лицензией Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.