Истоки «Мягкой силы России»: переосмысляя русскую национальную идентичность


https://doi.org/10.18611/2221-3279-2017-8-2-19-36

Полный текст:


Аннотация

В статье рассматриваются философские основы возникновения «мягкой силы» современной России и стратегии противостояния “мягкой силе” Запада. Авторы делают вывод о том, что «мягкая сила» современной России основана на русской философии и литературе девятнадцатого века. Без дополнительных механизмов, «мягкая сила» России не смогла противостоять распространению «мягкой силы» Запада. Таким образом, вместо создания собственного позитивного культурно-политического имиджа, Россия создала специальные информационные организации для того, чтобы показать противоречивость «мягкой силы» Запада.

Об авторах

Майкл О. Слободчиков
Университет Трой
Соединённые Штаты Америки
PhD (политические науки), руководитель магистерской программы по международным отношениям, доцент, Кафедра политологии


Г. Дуглас Дэвис
Университет Трой
Соединённые Штаты Америки
PhD (политические науки), доцент, Кафедра политологии


Список литературы

1. Aslund, Anders. Russia’s Economic Transformation / In The Oxford Handbook of the Russian Economy, eds. Michael Alexeev and Shlomo Weber. Oxford University Press, 2013. Pp. 86-101.

2. Averre, Derek. Competing Rationalities: Russia, the EU and the “Shared Neighbourhood” // Europe-Asia Studies, 2009, No. 61(10), pp. 1689-1713.

3. Avgerinos, K. Russia’s Public Diplomacy Effort: What the Kremlin Is Doing and Why it’s Not Working? // Journal of Public and International Affairs, 2009, No. 20(1).

4. Balmaceda, Margarita Mercedes. Gas, Oil and the Linkages between Domestic and Foreign Policies: The Case of Ukraine // Europe-Asia Studies, 1998, No. 50(2), pp. 257-286.

5. Barbé, Esther; Johansson-Nogués, Elisabeth. The EU as a Modest ‘force for Good’: The European Neighborhood Policy // International Affairs, 2008, No. 84(1), pp. 81-96.

6. Becker, Seymour. Russia between East and West: The Intelligentsia, Russian National Identity and the Asian Borderlands // Central Asian Survey, 1991, No. 10(4), pp. 47-64.

7. Bertrand, Natasha. Russian Internet Trolls Are Trained to Spread Propaganda in Three-Person Teams // Business Insider, 2015. Mode of access: http://www.businessinsider.com/russian-internet-trolls-are-trained-to-spreadpropaganda-in-three-person-teams-2015-3

8. Blok, Alexander. The Scythians // Critical Quarterly, 1969, 11(4), pp. 321-323.

9. Boym, Svetlana. From the Russian Soul to PostCommunist Nostalgia // Representations, 1995, No. 49, pp. 133-166.

10. Bugajski, Janusz. Expanding Eurasia: Russia’s European Ambitions. Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2008.

11. Chernenko, Yelena. Russia’s Reputation on the World Stage May Be at an Unfair Disadvantage // Kommersant, 2012. Mode of access: http://rbth.ru/articles/2012/09/05/

12. russias_reputation_on_the_world_stage_may_be_at_an_unfair_disadvanta_17967.html

13. Croft, Clare. Dancers as Diplomats: American Choreography in Cultural Exchange. Oxford University Press, 2015.

14. Del Noce, Augusto. The Crisis of Modernity. Translated by C. Lancellotti. Edited by P. J. Cercone. Vol. 64. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2014.

15. DeSilver, Drew. Record Number of International Students Studying in U.S. Pew Research Center, 2013. Mode of access: http://www.pewresearch.org/facttank/2013/11/12/record-number-of-international-studentsstudying-in-u-s/

16. Dolgov, Anna. Russia Wants to Take More Foreign Students to Build ‘Pro-Moscow Elites’ News // The Moscow Times, 2015. Mode of access: http://www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/russia-wants-to-increase-number-offoreign-students-in-attempt-to-produce-sympathizersabroad/519679.html

17. Dolinskiy, Alexey. Russian Soft Power 2.0 // Russia Direct, 2013. http://www.russia-direct.org/russian-media/september-quarterly-russian-soft-power-20

18. Dostoyevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Trajectory Classics, 2014.

19. Feklyunina, Valentina. Battle for Perceptions: Projecting Russia in the West.” Europe-Asia Studies, 2008, No. 60(4), pp. 605-629.

20. Feklyunina, Valentina. Russia’s International Images and Its Energy Policy. An Unreliable Supplier? // EuropeAsia Studies, 2012, No. 64(3), pp. 449-469.

21. Ferguson, Chaka. The Strategic Use of Soft Balancing: The Normative Dimensions of the Chinese–Russian ‘Strategic Partnership’ // Journal of Strategic Studies, 2012, No. 35(2), pp. 197-222.

22. Franklin, Simon; Widdis, Emma. National Identity in Russian Culture: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, 2006.

23. Gänzle, Stefan. EU Governance and the European Neighbourhood Policy: A Framework for Analysis // Europe-Asia Studies, 2009, No. 61(10), pp. 1715-1734.

24. Gardels, Nathan. Putin’s Three Gurus vs. the G-8 // New Perspectives Quarterly, 2014, No. 31(2), pp. 2-7.

25. Gessen, Keith. What’s the Matter with Russia: Putin and the Soviet Legacy // Foreign Affairs, 2014, No. 93, p. 182.

26. Gogol, Nikolai. Dead Souls. Yale University Press, 1996.

27. Goldman, Marshall I. Petrostate: Putin, Power, and the New Russia. Oxford University Press US, 2010.

28. Goldstein, Joshua. The Role of Digital Networked Technologies in the Ukrainian Orange Revolution. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. SSRN Scholarly Paper, 2007. Mode of access: http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1077686

29. Gorham, Michael. Virtual Rusophonia: Language Policy as ‘Soft Power’in the New Media Age. Digital Icons: Studies in Russian, Eurasian and Central European New Media, 2011, No. 5, pp. 23-48.

30. Gregory, Paul Roderick. Putin’s New Weapon In The Ukraine Propaganda War: Internet Trolls // Forbes, 2014. Mode of access: http://www.forbes.com/sites/paulroderickgregory/2014/12/09/putins-new-weapon-inthe-ukraine-propaganda-war-internet-trolls/

31. Haukkala, Hiski. The Russian Challenge to EU Normative Power: The Case of European Neighbourhood Policy // The International Spectator, 2008, No. 43(2), pp. 35-47.

32. Haukkala, Hiski. Lost in Translation? Why the EU Has Failed to Infl uence Russia’s Development // Europe-Asia Studies, 2009, No. 61(10), pp. 1757-1575.

33. Headley, James. Challenging the EU’s Claim to Moral Authority: Russian Talk of ‘double Standards’ // Asia Europe Journal, 2015, pp. 1-11.

34. Higgins, Andrew. Moldova Eyes Russia’s Embrace as Flirtation With Europe Fades // The New York Times, 2015. Mode of access: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/22/world/europe/moldova-eyes-russias-embrace-as-fl irtationwith-europe-fades.html

35. Hill, Fiona. Moscow Discovers Soft Power // Current History, 2006, No. 105(693), p. 341.

36. Jackson, Nicole J. Russian Foreign Policy and the CIS: Theories, Debates and Actions. Psychology Press, 2003.

37. Jakobson, Roman. Slavic Languages: A Condensed Survey. New York: King’s Crown Press, 1995. Mode of access: http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED044945

38. Kokoshin, Andrei. Real Sovereignty and Sovereign Democracy // Russia in Global Affairs, 2006, No. 4(4), p. 105.

39. Kortlandt, Frederik. From Proto-Indo-European to Slavic // Journal of Indo-European Studies, 1994, No. 22(1), pp. 1-20.

40. Kosachev, Konstantin. The Specifi cs of Russian Soft Power // Russia in Global Affairs, 2012, No. 3.

41. Krastev, Ivan. ’Sovereign Democracy’, RussianStyle. // Open Democracy, 2006, No. 16.

42. Kubicek, Paul. Ukraine and the European Neighborhood Policy: Can the EU Help the Orange Revolution Bear Fruit? // East European Quarterly, 2007, No. 41(1), p. 1.

43. Lane, David. The Orange Revolution: ‘People’s Revolution’ or Revolutionary Coup? // The British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 2008, No. 10(4), pp. 525-549.

44. Lavenex, Sandra. A Governance Perspective on the European Neighbourhood Policy: Integration beyond Conditionality? // Journal of European Public Policy, 2008, No. 15(6), pp. 938-955.

45. Lavrov, Sergey. Remarks by Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov at the Presentation Ceremony for Lyubov Glebova, Head of the Federal Agency for the Commonwealth of Independent States, Compatriots Living Abroad and International Humanitarian Cooperation. Embassy of the Russian Federation, Washington, DC, 2015.

46. Lipman, Masha. Putin’s ‘Sovereign Democracy’ // Washington Post: A21, 2006.

47. Lucas, Edward. The New Cold War: Putin’s Russia and the Threat to the West. Macmillan, 2014.

48. Lukin, Alexander. From a Post-Soviet to a Russian Foreign Policy: Lessons From the Confl ict with Georgia // Russia in Global Affairs, 2008, No. 6 (4), pp. 52-65.

49. Lukin, Alexander. What the Kremlin Is Thinking // Foreign Affairs, 2014, No. 93(4).

50. Makarychev, Andrey S. Russia’s Search for International Identity Through the Sovereign Democracy Concept // The International Spectator, 2008, No. 43(2), pp. 49-62.

51. Maliukevičius, Nerijus. (Re) Constructing Russian Soft Power in Post-Soviet Region // AGORA. Political communication studies, 2015, No. 0(2), pp. 61-86.

52. Manners, Ian. Normative Power Europe Reconsidered: Beyond the Crossroads // Journal of European Public Policy, 2006, No. 13(2), pp. 182-199.

53. Mariinsky, Met Extend Contract, 2012 / RIA Novosti. Mode of acess: http://sputniknews.com/voiceofrussia/2012/01/19/64142867/

54. McFaul, Michael. Ukraine Imports Democracy: External Infl uences on the Orange Revolution // International Security, 2007, No. 32(2), pp. 45-83.

55. Midgette, Anne. Music Review of the Mariinsky Theatre Orchestra at the Kennedy Center // The Washington Post, 2010. Mode of access: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/03/05/AR2010030503912.html

56. Mroz, John Edwin; Pavliuk, Oleksandr. Ukraine: Europe’s Linchpin // Foreign Affairs, 1996, No. 75(3), pp. 52-62.

57. Noutcheva, G. Fake, Partial and Imposed Compliance: The Limits of the EU’s Normative Power in the Western Balkans. CEPS Working Documents No. 274. CEPS Working Documents No. 274.

58. Nye, Joseph S. Get Smart- Combining Hard and Soft Power // Foreign Affairs, 2009, No. 88, p. 160.

59. Nye, Joseph S. Smart Power // New Perspectives Quarterly, 2009, No. 26(2), pp. 7-9.

60. Okara, Andrei. Sovereign Democracy: A New Russian Idea or a PR Project? // Russia in Global Affairs, 2007, No. 5(3), pp. 8-20.

61. Petrov, Nikolai. From Managed Democracy to Sovereign Democracy: Putin’s Regime Evolution in 2005. PONARS Policy Memo 396, 2005.

62. Pifer, Steven. European Mediators and Ukraine’s Orange Revolution // Problems of Post-Communism, 2007, No. 54(6), pp. 28-42.

63. Poll: Moldovans Prefer Customs Union to EU. Kyiv Post, 2012.

64. Popescu, Nicu. Russia’s Soft Power Ambitions / CEPS Policy briefs, 2006, No. 1-12, pp. 1-3.

65. Popescu, Nicu; Wilson, Andrew. The Limits of Enlargement-Lite: European and Russian Power in the Troubled Neighbourhood. European Council of Foreign Relations, 2009. Mode of access: http://www.jean-jaures.org/content/download/12118/115522/fi le/popescu.pdf

66. Putin Orders Overhaul of Top State News Agency / RT, 2013. Mode of access: http://rt.com/news/ria-novostioverhaul-putin-960/

67. Putin’s ’Troll Army’: Bloggers Forced to ‘Flood Websites with pro-Russian Propaganda’ / Express, 2015. Mode of access: http://www.express.co.uk/news/world/568443/VladimirPutin-bloggers-flood-websites-pro-Russian-propaganda

68. Rancour-Laferriere, Daniel. The Moral Masochism at the Heart of Christianity: Evidence from Russian Orthodox Iconography and Icon Veneration // Journal for thePsychoanalysis of Culture and Society, 2003, No. 8(1), pp. 12-22.

69. Robinson, Matt. In Fight for Infl uence, Russia Can Play Good Cop Too // Reuters, 2014. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/30/us-europe-russia-influence-insightidUSKCN0JE07I20141130

70. Royce, Rep. Edward R. Confronting Russia’s Weaponization of Information. Washington D.C., 2015.

71. Saari, Sinikukka. Russia’s Post-Orange Revolution Strategies to Increase Its Infl uence in Former Soviet Republics: Public Diplomacy Po Russkii // Europe-Asia Studies, 2014, No. 66(1), pp. 50-66.

72. Schimmelfennig, Frank. The Community Trap: Liberal Norms, Rhetorical Action, and the Eastern Enlargement of the European Union // International Organization, 2001, No. 55(01), pp. 47-80.

73. Schimmelfennig, Frank; Scholtz, Hanno. EU Democracy Promotion in the European Neighbourhood Political Conditionality, Economic Development and Transnational Exchange // European Union Politics, 2008, No. 9(2), pp. 187-215.

74. Simons, Greg. Russian Public Diplomacy in the 21st Century: Structure, Means and Message // Public Relations Review, 2014, No. 40(3), pp. 440-449.

75. Simons, Greg. Perception of Russia’s Soft Power and Infl uence in the Baltic States // Public Relations Review, 2015, No. 41(1), pp. 1-13.

76. Slobodchikoff, Michael O. The New European Union: Integration as a Means of Norm Diffusion // Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, 2010, No. 9(1), pp. 1-25.

77. Slobodchikoff, Michael O. Russia’s Monroe Doctrine Just Worked in Ukraine // Russia Direct, 2013. Mode of access: http://russia-direct.org/content/russia%E2%80%99smonroe-doctrine-just-worked-ukraine

78. Slobodchikoff, Michael O. Strategic Cooperation: Overcoming the Barriers of Global Anarchy. Lexington Books, 2013.

79. Slobodchikoff, Michael O. Building Hegemonic Order Russia’s Way: Order, Stability, and Predictability in the Post-Soviet Space. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014.

80. Slobodchikoff, Tatyana. The Argument Structure of the Dative Desiderative in Slavic: Bosnian and Russian / FASSBL6, 2008, pp. 109-114.

81. Slobodchikoff, Tatyana. The Slavic Dual: Morphosyntactic Feature Economy as a Factor in Language Change. University of Arizona, 2013. http://arizona.openrepository.com/arizona/handle/10150/297021

82. Smith, Karen E. The Outsiders: The European Neighborhood Policy // International Affairs, 2005, No. 81(4), pp. 757-773.

83. Stent, Angela E. Restoration and Revolution in Putin’s Foreign Policy // Europe-Asia Studies, 2008, No. 60(6), pp. 1089-1106.

84. Suny, Ronald Grigor. The Pawn of Great Powers: The East–West Competition for Caucasia // Journal of Eurasian Studies, 2010, No. 1(1), pp. 10-25.

85. Tocci, Nathalie; Hamilton, Daniel Sheldon. Who Is a Normative Foreign Policy Actor? / The European Union and Its Global Partners. CEPS, 2008.

86. Tolz, Vera. Forging the Nation: National Identity and Nation Building in Post‐communist Russia // EuropeAsia Studies, 1998, No. 50(6), pp. 993-1022.

87. Tsygankov, Andrei P. If Not by Tanks, Then by Banks? The Role of Soft Power in Putin’s Foreign Policy // EuropeAsia Studies, 2006, No. 58(7), pp. 1079-1099.

88. Tsygankov, Andrei P. Russia in the Post-Western World: The End of the Normalization Paradigm? // Post-Soviet Affairs, 2009, No. 25(4), pp. 347-369.

89. Tsygankov, Andrei P. Preserving Infl uence in a Changing World // Problems of Post-Communism, 2011, No. 58(2), pp. 28-44.

90. Tsygankov, Andrei P. Russia’s Foreign Policy: Change and Continuity in National Identity. Rowman & Littlefi eld Publishers, 2013.

91. Willerton, John P.; Goertz, Gary; Slobodchikoff, Michael O. Mistrust and Hegemony: Regional Institutional Design, the FSU-CIS, and Russia // International Area Studies Review, 2015, No. 18(1), pp. 26-52.

92. Willerton, J. P.; McGovern, Patrick J. The State, Sovereignty, and Democracy Building ‘Russian Style.’ In Stockholm, Sweden, 2010.

93. Willerton, J. P.; Slobodchikoff, Michael O.; Goertz, Gary. Forthcoming. Treaty Networks, Nesting, and Interstate Cooperation: Russia, the FSU, and the CIS / International Area Studies Review.

94. Williams, Robert C. The Russian Soul: A Study in European Thought and Non-European Nationalism // Journal of the History of Ideas, 1970, No. 31(4), pp. 573-588.

95. Wilson, Andrew. Ukraine’s Orange Revolution, NGOs and the Role of the West // Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 2006, No. 19(1), pp. 21-32.

96. Wolczuk, Kataryna. Ukraine after the Orange Revolution. Centre for European Reform, 2005. Mode of access: http://cer-live.thomas-paterson.co.uk/sites/default/files/publications/attachments/pdf/2011/policybrief_ukraine_feb2005-852.pdf

97. Zenkovsky, Vasily V. The Spirit of Russian Orthodoxy // Russian Review, 1963, No. 22(1), pp. 38-55.

98. Лебедева, M.M., Ж. Фор. Высшее образование как потенциал «мягкой силы» России // Вестник МГИМО Университета, 2009, No. 6. Mode of access: http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/vysshee-obrazovanie-kakpotentsial-myagkoy-sily-rossii [Lebedeva, M.M., Zh. For. Vysshee obrazovanie kak potencial «mjagkoj sily» Rossii (Higher Education as an Element of Potential Russian Soft Power) // Vestnik MGIMO Universiteta, 2009, No. 6. Mode of access: http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/vyssheeobrazovaniekak-potentsial-myagkoy-sily-rossii]


Дополнительные файлы

Для цитирования: Слободчиков М.О., Дуглас Дэвис Г. Истоки «Мягкой силы России»: переосмысляя русскую национальную идентичность. Сравнительная политика. 2017;8(2):19-36. https://doi.org/10.18611/2221-3279-2017-8-2-19-36

For citation: Slobodchikoff M.O., Douglas Davis G. Roots of Russian Soft Power: Rethinking Russian National Identity. Comparative Politics Russia. 2017;8(2):19-36. https://doi.org/10.18611/2221-3279-2017-8-2-19-36

Просмотров: 616

Обратные ссылки

  • Обратные ссылки не определены.


Creative Commons License
Контент доступен под лицензией Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 2221-3279 (Print)
ISSN 2412-4990 (Online)